Human milk oligosaccharides, such as 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL), and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), a prebiotic carbohydrate mixture, are being increasingly added to infant formulas, necessitating the understanding of their impact on the oral microbiota. Here, for the first time, the effects of 2′-FL and GOS on the planktonic growth and adhesion characteristics of the caries-associated oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans were assessed, and the results were compared against the effects of xylitol, lactose and glucose.